W.S. Churchill,throughout his carreer  was awarded the Nobel prize for Litrature. The following information ,photographs etc.are part of this great mans life. There were many books written by Churchill. In this archive i hope to cover most of his work`s. We start with    MY  EARLY LIFE.

                              

Winston  Spencer  Churchill [1874-1965] the greatest englishman who ever lived and wrote one of the most joyous autobiographies. Many people, who offer opinions, Max Hastings who introduces the book My Early Life  think the Autobiography is one Churchill`s best.

This work first published in 1930,was written by Churchill in his fifties,and at this point in life he had done more, and seen more than most men his age group. We had a flourishing empire,he had held some important cabinet positions in goverenment,but his greatest achievments were yet to come. 

Winston was born in 1874, his father was the youngest son of the Duke of Marlbourgh Lord Randolph. His  mother was an American Heiress Jenni Jerome, Winston had a brother Jack,  who were both raised as                                            1                                                                         2 

                                          

Top left Lord Randolph, Winstons father.              Top left Winston at Harrow.

Top right Winstons Nanny[nurse]                          Bottom Harrow School roll call.

Bottom from left to right.

Jack. Lady Churchill. Winston.

 

young aristocrats,but would inherit no fortunes. Winstons father Randolph was a gifted speaker in the conservative party. His political career was destroyed when, as Chancelor of the Exchequer in 1886, he saught by a threat of resignation to blackmail Salisbury, the Prime Minister into defence spending cuts. His political career was all but finished over this. He suffered from an incureable brain  disease which brought on severe mental decline, he died in 1894 at the age of forty - six. 

Lord Randolph was not just a distant parent to Jack and Winston, he was very harsh and frightening. He made it clear to Winston that he fell short of all his fathers hopes for a Churchill. This pain endured and was a driving force in the young Winston to prove that his father`s disdain for him had been mistaken.

Childhood.   

Winstons early childhood was spent in Ireland until the age of five. His nurse /nanny was MRS Everest, nickname [woomany] whom he adored until her death.[See photograph upper left. 1]

Winstons preparitory school: St George`s at Ascot in Berkshire was at £55 per term not cheap. His experiance with a governess had been unhappy, but his encounter with the full panoply of education - masters,classrooms, examinations and punishments - was to be deeply traumatic. Winston was at this school for two years and they were without question the unhappiest of his life. His reports made it clear that he could not be induced to learn subjects that did not interest him. He was beaten for using foul language that he picked up at the stables at Blenheim. The punishment for boys in  Victoian schools in this way was commonplace, but here it seems to have been so savage, that Winston hated school for the rest of his life, and never forgave the headmaster. These marks were seen by Mrs Everest and were brought to the notice of his mother, that caused him to be removed from St George`s. 

At school he terribly missed his playthings. In his nursery at home he had many wonderful toys a Steam Engine, a Magic Lantern and a collection of soldiers a thousand strong. His playroom at home  contained from one end to the other a plank table on trestles, upon which  were thousands of lead soldiers arranged for battle. Although this was an impressive show,and played with an interest that was no ordinary child game. All the [Army] services were complete.

Winstons father Lord Randolph was an infrequent visitor to the playroom but on one occasion asked Winston if he would like to go into the Army, Winstons affirmitive reply settled the issue for both of them. [It was later that he learned that his father did not think him intelegent enough to go to a life at the Bar]

 Harrow

Winstons placing on his entrance exam at Harrow placed him in the third,or lowest,division of the fourth. It was the year 1887. Lord Randolph Churchill had only just resigned his position as Leader of the House of Commons and Chancellor of the Exchequer.  

Harrow was still in the country, you could look out of the windows  of the Headmasters House and see nothing but green fields; from the churchyard you had an uninterupted view of  the English landscape as far as Windsor, which was visible on a clear day. The Metrapolitan railway was stretching out its tentacles to Pinner and Rickmansworth. 

His expensive school was wasted on him he came away untamed and unmoulded as well as uneducated. Among englishmen of his class - indeed among Englishmen in general - it rendered him somthing of a lifelong outsider. Despite his years at Harrow he never became a product of the english public school system: not a man of understatement and arrogant self effacement,not a cricketer,not a polished "English Gentleman" but rather a character from Shakespeare`s England, where public schools were unknown. And in spite of his zealous autodidactic endeavours in later years and his own vast achievments in the fields of litrature and Historiography, he always lacked a solid, conventional education.

That is as may the school was an immensily important interlude in Churchill`s life and had a marked influence on his military as well as his general  development. Here he first handled weapons and took part in manoeuvers. More significantly it was here that he learned to love - and write Military History. 

Harrow Rifle Corp.   For putting theoretical knoledge into practice there was the Harrow rifle Corp. This was like many British Militia Units, it was founded in 1859 when the fear of a French invasion had led to the need for troops.Since this threat had receeded the corp was not popular,with only about 100 members. Winston answered the school request:The Rifle Corp has need of recruits this term,as many have left. All who will be seventeen years old between November 1st, 1888 and October 31st 1889,should,if possible,enroll in the 9th Middlesex,thus earning,if efficient, 35 shillings a year for the Corp.

The attractions of the Corps this term was great and varied. There are Field Days at Hatfield and to Althorp Park; there is the Brigade Drill in Hyde Park; there is the Gaurd Of Hounor for HRH Princess Louise [Daughter of Queen Victoria]. What is certain is the School is not numerously represented as it should be by the Rifle Corps; there must be more recruits.

Winston left Harrow school in 1892. with a reasonable schoolastic record. He won the school prize for reciting 1200 lines from MACAULEY`S Lay`s of ancient Rome. In sport he was Public Schools fencing champion 1892.  During the last year he tried the examinations to gain entry to Sandhurst military College

EXAMINATIONS.

Winston  had started to shine even then in litrature,resetation of great works by Macauley [Roman Empire] he started to seriously think of his future. He was now embarked on a military career, this orientation was possibly  due to his love of his  vast collection of military soldiers. His father Randolph did not think Winston had what it takes for a career at the bar and encouraged a Sandhurst entrance exam. His total time at Harrow four and a half years three of which were spent in the Army class, this was designed to pass the entrance either to Woolwich or Sandhurst. It took Winston three attemps to pass the entrance exam to Sandhurst. 

Sandhurst                                               

Sandhurst was a completely new start for Winston. Discipline was strict and the hours of study and parade were long,one was very tired at the end of the day. He enjoyed riding school thoroughly.His father arranged for Winston to go through an additional course at riding - school at Knightsbridge Barracks with the Royal Horse Guards. Horses were a great pleasure for Winston at Sandhurst.  Horses kept privately were very expensive, he spent most of his money hiring hiring horses  for running point to point and steeple chasing. On becomming a gentleman cadet at Sandhurst he moved around in his fathers company occasionally,meeting senior government figures and the gentry at large.

The year Winston went to Sandhurst 1893 the  the course was extended by an extra term and now lasted  eighteen months instead of a year. The subjects  in  study were tactics, fortifocation,topography, ie [map reading,] military law, and military administration and this formed the whole curriculum. In addition there were drill, gymnastics and riding. Gentleman cadet Churchill proved to be an excellent student in those areas of the curriculum that particularly interested him. It is interesting to note ,that the Board was recommending the study of military history [which was not, in fact , on the syllabus until 1897] young Churchill had already taken steps to form his own military library.

On passing out at Sandhurst Winston attained high grades As thooretical studdies,Winstons marks in tactics and the study of Fortifications were very high and in Equitation his marks were exceptional.

 

Winston learned several things at Sandhurst which showed him how to behave,and how officers of differant ranks were expected to treat one another in the life and disciple of the regiments. At this point Winston did not know what regiment infantry or cavalry he would join.

During the Sandhurst training he had been invited to dine in the regimental officers mess of the Fourth Hussars,in Winstons words a great treat. In those days the mess of a cavalry regiment presented an impressive spectacle to a youthfull eye. Twenty or thirty officers, all magnificently attired in blue and gold,assembled round a table upon which shone the plate and trophies gathered by the regiment in two hundred years of sport and campaigning. It was like a state banquet. In an all - pervading air of glitter,affluence,ceremony and veiled discipline an excellent and lengthy dinner was served to the strains of the regimental string band.

After a period colonel Brabazon wrote to Winstons mother and was anxious for him to join his regiment the Fourth Hussars. Lord  Randolph;  churchills father was against the cavalry for reasons of expence,he wanted Winston to go into the infantry,the Duke of Cambridge who commanded 60th Rifles expressed his displeasure that Winston would choose cavalry before the infantry.

In the spring of 1894 it became apparant that Lord  Randolph Winstons father was gravely ill. He still persisted in his political work,and sadly died on the 24 January 1894 aged 46 years.

Below the collage represents a number of years in the life of Winston Churchill. The elderly gentleman circled in the collage below is Mr J.E.C. Welldon the Headmaster at Harrow School during Winston`s time there.

 

 

 

  The Fourth Queens Own  Hussars.

 Colonel Brabazon commanded the Fourth Hussars, the regiment had just returned from Ireland and was quartered in the East Cavalry Barracks. Colonel Brabazon had been a family friend of the Churchill`s for many years and Winston had met him several times during his school years.  

In March 1895 Churchill was gazetted into the 4th Hussars where he started his recruit officer training,in those days the principal was that the newly joined officer was given a recruit`s training for the first six months. He rode and drilled afoot with the troopers and received the same instruction and training as they did. At the head of the file in riding school, or on the right of the squad on the square,he had to try and set an example to the men. Churchill proved an excellent horseman during training,he excelled in all subjects and became a skilled rider.

Mrs Everest [Nanny]

At around this time Mrs Everest died [Woomany] his nurse and nanny whom he loved dearly,as soon as he had heard that she was seriously ill he travelled up to London to see her. She lived with her sisters family in North London. She new she was in danger, but her only anxiety was for Winston. There had been a heavy shower of rain. His jacket was wet. When she felt it with her hands  she was greatly alarmed for fear he should catch a cold. The jacket had to be taken off and thoroughly dried before she was calm again. Winston set out into London to get a specialist, and two doctors consulted on the case. Winston had to return to Aldershot for an early parade. When it was over he returned to her bedside,death came very easy to her,she had lived an innocent loving life of  service to others. She had been Winstons dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of his twenty years of life.[ Later in his own life he was to have a hand in the structure of pensions and insurance that no other country in the world can rival.

Riding out with the Regiment. 

In 1894 Churchill aged twenty reported to the East Cavalry Barracks in Aldershot. As a garrison town it was only 40 years old,but already become established as the Home of the British Army. Churchill saw in the early ninties in Aldershot, the glamour and romance of dash and colour, which was part of everyday life. He had daily walks across the bridge over the old canal,over the queen`s parade and uinto North Camp Gardens which were kept alive to the identity of every Regiment in the station by the gay bright uniforms worn by all ranks and file everywhere and could be recognized half a mile away. There were mounted orderlies busily trotting around with leather despatch bags,parties at drill and soldiers [walking out] it was soldiers ,soldiers everywhere.

The weekly routine.: Included attendance at Church Parades in the little tin church by the Canal. Reviews and Queen`s Birthday Parades in all the full dress glories of Ceramonial and on Laffans Plain colour all the way.

Ambitious,intelectually enquiring and as always impatient with authority,Churchill was no more suited to the world of an Officers Mess than he had been to life at school,but skill at Polo helped gain him acceptance among his comrades

Cuba.

In the closing decade of the Victorian era the Empire had enjoyed for so long a spell of almost unbroken peace.The vererans of the Crimea and the Indian Mutiny were gone from the active list and Winston wanted action.

The Spanish island of Cuba was in a state of insurrection ,seeking independance from Madrid,and fighting rumbled through it`s forests, mountains and cane  fields, there were no heroic battles just a continuing war of small raids and skirmishes  and harassment. As he surveyed the world this was the nearest thing Churchill could find to a proper war and he decided to have a look at it. If he could gain permission to visit the Spanish army in the field he could experiance war at first hand - something none of his contemporaries had done. He would not be allowed to do any fighting ,and could therefore win no glory, but it would be better than nothing.  Sir Henry Drummond Wolff  once a political ally of Lord Randolph; Churchill`s father he was now the British Ambassador in Madrid.Wolff was to prove as useful in helping Churchill to see action. Churchill fired of a letter asking that he obtain the necessary passes ad letters of introduction, and these were arranged through the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Duke of Tetuan.They were forthcomming remarkably quickly. No matter how much it was pointed out that Churchill was only on Holiday,the Spanish government insisted on seeing the presence of a famous English politicion`s son as a gesture of at least quasi -  official endorsement. International  opinion strongly sided with the rebels, and Spain was glad of all the support it could get.

He did not need to fear that he would be missed by the British Army,in the spacious years of Victoria`s reign,officers like Churchill were entitled to spend five months out of every 12 on leave, and 10 weeks of that taken consecutively. This was because many of them were posted thousands of miles away from home on tours of duty that lasted decades,and with slow sea travel it was only worthwhile going home once a year.

The Cuban rebellion was a source of interest to the public, and if Churchill could arrange to write reports on the fighting for a newspaper ,he could perhaps recoup the cost of his ticket. In the end his mother Lady Randolph paid for the tickets and there were two of them he had persuaded  fellow subaltern Reginald Barnes to go with him Churchill made preparations and costed the enterpise before telling his mother of his plans. She eccepted matters with good grace and ,since they were stopping in New York they would spend time with Bourke Cockran family friend of Lady Randolph. Churchill obtained consent from Colonel Brabazon 4th Hussars and thought he better have clearance from higher up the chain of command. With characteristic impudence he wrote to the Army`s new Cmmander - in - Chief Sir Garnet Wolseley. He also consulted Military Inteligence, recieving Maps, and information.

Churchill and Barnes sailed from Liverpool at the beginning of November,Churchill`s first sea voyage put him in a foul mood but this evaporated as soon as the ship docked at New York. On to Cuba. after a shot stay in NewYork.  

Spain fielded 150,000 troops in this conflict this had been escalting since 1895. The number of opponents is unknown. The rebels were badly armed and led and had no stomach for pitched battle against professional soldiers. They had a wide following in the countryside and were able to carryout innumerable acts of petty sabotage,such as derailing trains or sniping at convoys. They also destroyed sugar crops and prevented mill`s grinding cane,thus wrecking the economy and bringing trade to a halt[America was infuriated by this measure] as well as gaining international publicity for their cause,a tactic that modern terrorists have not been slow to emulate. Madrid`s response was to seize control of the island`s cities and to create protected routes through the countryside,turning Cuba into a fortress. An American journalist,Richard Harding Davis, whowas not unsympathetic to the Spaniards,described the measures taken and their effect on movement around the island.

Forts stretch all over the island, some in straight lines, some in circles,and some zig - zagging from hill top to hill top, some within a quarter of a mile from the next,and others so near. 

The island is divided into two great military camps,one situated within the camps,one situated within the forts,and the others scattered in the fields and the mountains outside them. The spaniards have absolute control over everthing within the fortified places;that is, in all cities,towns,seaports, and aklong the lines of the railroad; the insurgents are in possesion of all the rest.


 

Churchill`s visit to Cuba was a dress rehersal for the colonial wars, in which he was to participate,and successfully launched him in the role of soldier corespondent. His first experiance of warfare was gained while accompanying a column of Spanish troops as photograph above.

On the 30 November Churchill`s 21st Birthday,the column set out before dawn. The mist and darkness  created ideal conditions for an ambush and the rebels duly struck. There was a sudden explosion of firing from nearby trees, but no one was hit and the soldiers did not return fire. When we stopped for a  lunch break in a forest clearing there was another outburst of firing, this time hitting a horse. At the end of the day`s march a halt was made on a river bank,and Churchill went bathing with some others. They had just climbed out when a crackling volley of shots flew over their heads.In war no soldier ever goes a yard without his weapon,and the soldiers doubled up and gave a return volley of aimed shots with their Mausers which checked the enemy advance. There was a regular skirmish going on less than quarter of a mile away the same ambush, the bullets were falling over the camp. The rebels using Remingtons,fired independently,anmd deep notes of their rifles contrasted with the small rattle of the magazine fed rifles of the Spaniards. After about half an hour the insurgents had enough, and went off carring their wounded and dead with them. That night more bullets pierced Churchill`s tent and wounded a nearby orderly. Churchill had celebrated his comming of age with comming under fire a number of times that day.

Churchill greatly admired the toughness and  professionalism of the soldiers,  who could march enormous distances, fight bravely and show contempt for the rebel sharpshooters. Emerging from the woods into open ground, the column fanned out. The rebels were firing behind a ridge and the two sides engaged. General Valdez made no effort to be inconspicous, riding up and down behind his troops positions. His white and gold uniform,grey horse,drew considerable enemy fire and Churchill - like the others on the General staff was thus in some danger.

India 1897.

The 4th Hussars were in the last few months of their duty in Hounslow Barracks, and were preparing to leave for India. They would join the garrison at Bangalore. With little to do they would live in the Kipplingesque world of Polo and servants and drinks on club verandas. Many officers looked forward to this prospect. To Churchill it seemed a prison sentence. He had by now decided to leave the Army and enter politics.The thought of long years stranded thousands of miles  from the seat of government filled him with horror. The 4 th Hussars had no prospect of action,Bangalore was peaceful and the only place in India that offered excitement - the North west Frontier 2000 miles away. As the departure date he pestered his mother Lady Ranolph to arrange his transfer to another unit. She disliked her son`s lack of patience,consistency and staying power. She let him go to India.

He arrived in Bombay on SS.Britannia,at the beginning of October 1896. In haste unwilling to wait to disembark he and other members hired a small craft to ferry them ashore. As this vessel came alongside the quay, rising and falling in the swell,Churchill reached out to grab an iron ring at precisely the boat plunged downwards. He dislocated his right shoulder, and was to suffer this injury for the rest of his life. [ Ever afterwards when playing Polo,he had to strap his right arm to his body,swinning the mallet only from the elbow. Since he was similarly unable to swing a cavalry sabre, he adopted a Muuser pistol instead. He attributed his survival at the Battle of Omdurman to this circumstance.].

Polo in Bangalore 

Bangalore was a popular posting. It was known as the garden of India and is accepted as being one of the healthiest places in in the country and suitable to British troops as the climate resembles a decent British summer and vegetation grows abundantly. Bangalore is divided into two parts:the cantonment and the city. The former is composed mainly of camps for British troops,shops, municipal buildings and residents. There are lovely walks, and the parks are just like England. 

In Bangalore Churchill was,as he had expected,quickly bored. He and his Barnes shared with one other in a [Batchelor Quarter] a pink stuco villa with an extension rose garden, and had a small army of native butlers,valets and grooms. Sometimes there was little office work to be done; sometimes we had a rifle inspection or a kit inspection,or an inspection of saddlery; sometimes either a British or Indian Officer gave a lecture on a variety of topics, such as horse management or musketry. By lunch time the days work was over. Soldiering was not then the highly technical proffesion that it has become, and the afternoons were nearly always free to do whatever you wished. Most of the officers played Polo three days a week and schooled ponies on other aternoons.In addition there were occasional race meetings at neigbouring stations,and rough shooting for all who wanted it. 

Churchill briefly took up butterfly collecting [there were beautiful specimns everywhere] but a rat ate his collection. He through himself into Regimental Polo  and began to take it seriously. The 4 th Hussars were determ,ined to excel.They bought the entire stud of another regiment,the Poona Light Horse and they played not two or three times a week but every day. They gained a trophy within a month of arriving in Bangalore,and concieved the ambition ,regartded as absurd for such an inexperienced team,of winning within a few years the all India Polo Tournament. Churchill played hard and played well enough to be placed in the team,in spite of his injury.[Shoulder]. With regimental duties finishing at noon, and Polo practice not until five o`clock ther was a good deal of spare time to fill every day. Churchill had brought to India a number of serious books and he was soon inundating his mother with requests for additions to his collection.

It is wel known he studied Gibbon and Macaulay modelling his own writing style on theirs,he also read Henry Hallam`s Constitutional History of England, Plato`s Republic and Adam Smith`s Wealth of Nations. To gain a solid grounding in British politics he asked for copies of the Annual Register,a yearly review of Government Business covering the years 1870 onwards,[ Lady Randolph complained that the cost was 14 shillings each ] These books enabled him to familiarize himself not only with the political issues of the previous generation but with his father`s ministerial career.When studying parliamentry debates,he formed his own opinions and reached his own conclusions before reading the outcome. His volumes were quickly filled with notes. A later Prime minister [Sir  Harold Wilson], paid tribute to the painstaking attention to detail involved in the course of study of the Churchill papers.

Sergeant Major Hallaway,who had earlier met Churchill as a newly joined Subaltern at Aldershot,remembers his stdios nature while in India. The great way about Churchill was the way he worked. He was busier than all the others put together. I never saw him without pencils sticking out all over him. Once,when i went to his bungalow, i could scarcelly get in,what with all the books and papers and foolscap all over the place. His fellow officers must have found this behavior odd, as well as antisocial,a cardinal sin in that enviroment. It was reported on one occasion during horseplay in the mess they had tried to squash him under a large sofa, but he had struggled free and told them they would never suceed in keeping him down. Only his skill at Polo must have earned their indulgence of his pronounced eccentricity.

Mr Churchill was easygoing and always ready for a joke. Not at all like some of the other officers. He hated to see chaps punished. The officers used to inspect the stables every day,and we never new what time they were comming. But Mr Churchill would whisper to me,leven - thirty, Sergeant Major. 

The ranks would `Fall in` in fatigue dress, by troops, with thr grooming articles, and answer their names. The Non Commisioned Officers report to the Squadron Sergeant Major,who would report to the senior officer. During the stable hours no man is to stop grooming to clean his saddlery until his horse is passed as sufficiently groomed; at the Turn in`  Officers are to watch the men grooming,and see that time is not wasted. To test the condition of a horses coat,both for cleanliness and health,it should be felt with the bare hand. Mane and tail should be examined.

 

In Search of War: Malakand. 

                                                                  

Expeditions to subdue recalcitrant tribesmen on India`s lawless Northwest Frontier were a frequent occurance. To a danger from a skilled and savage enemy was added the difficulty of moving men and equipment long distances through inhospitable terrain.

Winston got his mother Lady Randolph to write to certain News Paper`s to try and set up a commission for him when he arrived on the North West Frontier. Winston made some enquiries himself and in response for him to cover the conflict the News Chronicle showed some enthusiasim. The Chronicle stated that at any time you should visit parts of the region that are attracting attention,and find material to fill five letters,  to fill a column and a half per letter. The Chronicle would pay 10 guineas a letter. This particular part of the conflict ended the major part would begin in 1897.

On leave in England in 1897 Winston discovered while having a day out at Goodwood races that a punative expedition was going to the North West Frontier to quell unrest amongst the Pathan tribesmen. It would be commanded by Major General Sir Robin Bindon Blood, whom Churchill had not only met but who had promised him a post with any such expedition. Churchill at once cut short his leave and returned to India to remind the General of his promise. He was to late. Vacancies in the Malakand Field Force were already filled. The General kindly sugested ,however, that if Churchill could find a job as a correspondent,he would be welcome.

He notified his Regiment 4th  Hussars and got a months leave.  He  was fortunate to receive a commission from the Daily Telegraph and also  one from the Indian paper the Allahabad  Pioneer,he new that being on the spot was what mattered. If any officer was killed or wounded he could replace them. 

The North -West Frontier was a source of continual irratation to the British authorities in India. Aremote and mountaineous region bordering Afghanistan,it`s fiercely independent tribesmen lived in fortified villages from which the y could raid each others` cattle and defy  government officials. The geographical layout you can never find ground of the same nature for a few miles on end. First miles of cliffs and stony slopes giving way to open fans of cultivation backed by steep and sheer clifs, narrow river gorges opening out of fir covered mountains,which drop to  swelling bush covered hills or bare grazing ground, with patches of forest. The open plains  flanked by low,bare hills,and scored by deep ravines,after which you come to great bare hills.

The people differ less than the parts they live in. All are apt in war. They have a great reputation for cunning, which is really based on there mobility on the cliffs and steep slopes. Because this unrest was continuous, the army`s punative expeditions were frequent. There were no fewer than 34 of them between 1858 and 1897 the region was guarded by a network of forts and block houses,but these were easily attacked. The British response to any act of defiance was to enter the valleys in force, burn villages,blow up enemy towers and fortifications by the military engineers. The Malakand Expedition was brought about on the  26 July,1897. Alarge force of tribesmen of Swat and Utman Khel,estimated to be approximately 1000, suddenly attacked the fort at Chakdara. The garrison,consisting of two companies of 11th Sikh Regiment and forty sabres of the 11th Bengal Lancers  were  closely besieged for seven days,during which time the enemy made repeated attacks on the walls of the fort,even using ladders to scale the walls, but were always defeated with great slaughter. On the first night of the seige the enemy had cut the telegraph communication with Malakand and the only means of signalling was from a spur on the hill and signal tower outside the fort. Eventually on the third day a message was sent by Helio. and finnaly got through. The fighting lasted a week. Whatever the danger the Chakdara garrison found themselves the  Indian Army suffered only five dead and ten wounded, while there apponents lost between two and four thousand.

Sir Bindon Blood led his troops into the area during September,and described the impression that was made by Winston Churchill on the members of the Malakand Field Force. 

On returning from upper Swat at the end of August,i had found my young friend W.S.Churchill,of the 4 th Queens Own Hussars.who had joined me as an extra A.D.C- and a right good one he was!  

I sent for Churchill and  suggested he joining General Jeffreys in order to see a little fighting. He was all for it,so i sent him over at once and he saw more fighting than i expected,and very hard fighting too! He was personally engaged in some very serious work in a retirement,and did excellent service with a party of sikhs to which he carried an order, using a rifle which he borrowed from a seriously wounded man.

The Colonel of the Sikh regiment asked for him to be attached in place of one of his officers  who had been invalided,and he was useful for several weeks, although he new only a few words of the language. The Sikhs took to him at once, recognizing immediately  that his heart was in the right place.  

Churchill`s adventures could still sound something of a holiday lark, but these encountres were horrifying. The Pathans were without mercy,and the scramble to rescue wounded from tribesmen who were only feet away will have been one of the most dangerous of his life. Churchill`s own words as written in MY EARLY LIFE. As the retirement began till the last and here i was perhaps very near my end. This retirement was an awful rout in which the wounded were left to be cut up horribly by these wild beasts. Iwas close to both officers when they were hitand fired my revolver at a man at approximately  thirty yards who tried to cut up Hughes` body. He dropped but came on again. A subaltern and i carried a wounded sepoy for some distance and might perhaps, if there had been any gallery,have received some notice. We aklso remained until the enemy came within 40 yards firing our revolvers. They actually threw stones at us. It was a horrible business. I felt no excitement and very little fear. All the excitement went out when thgings became really dealy. Later on i used a rifle which a wounded man had dropped and fired forty rounds with some effect at close quarters. I cannot be sure but i thgink i hit four men.

Churchill put pen to paper and wrote the book The Story Of The Malakand Field Force in the space of five weeks it was sent to London for publishing,it appeared in March 1998 as a volume of 300 pages,it was not proof read and contained a few mistakes . In spite of this  it had considerable sucess, and he received letters from the Prince Of Wales and Lord Salisbury the then prime minister.

 

OMDURMAN ,1898.

 Churchill had already seen more action than any of his contemporaries in the 4 Hussars. He was not seeking military glory or promotion,as his comrades wopuld have done,so much as the basis of a national reputation to launch him in public life in England. To do this he needed to serve not in a frontier expedition but in a major campaign that would attract wide public interest at home. Of all the operations involving the British Army in the last years of the 19th century,none promised greater opportunities than the Anglo Egyptian Force that wopuld decend on the Sudan under the command of Lord Kitchener.

                                                                    Churchill in field dress uniform Sudan.

                                                         

Photograph below [Maddhi tomb]

 

 This would be bigger and a  more significant operation than the previous year`s fighting in India.

 To be continued.